# Elementary Approach to Modular Equations: Ramanujan's Theory 3

### Connection between Theta Functions and Hypergeometric Functions

Let's recall the Gauss Transformation formula from an earlier post: $$F\left(a, b; 2b; \frac{4x}{(1 + x)^{2}}\right) = (1 + x)^{2a}F\left(a, a - b + \frac{1}{2}; b + \frac{1}{2}; x^{2}\right)$$ where $F$ is the hypergeometric function ${}_{2}F_{1}$. Putting $a = b = 1/2$ we get $${}_{2}F_{1}\left(\frac{1}{2}, \frac{1}{2}; 1; \frac{4x}{(1 + x)^{2}}\right) = (1 + x)\,{}_{2}F_{1}\left(\frac{1}{2}, \frac{1}{2}; 1; x^{2}\right)$$ or $${}_{2}F_{1}\left(\frac{1}{2}, \frac{1}{2}; 1; 1 - \left(\frac{1 - x}{1 + x}\right)^{2}\right) = (1 + x)\,{}_{2}F_{1}\left(\frac{1}{2}, \frac{1}{2}; 1; x^{2}\right)$$

# Elementary Approach to Modular Equations: Ramanujan's Theory 2

### Ramanujan's Theory of Elliptic Functions

Ramanujan used the letter $x$ in place of $k^{2}$ and studied the function ${}_{2}F_{1}(1/2, 1/2; 1; x)$ in great detail and developed his theory of elliptic integrals and functions.